What is Cataract? What are the signs and symptoms?

4 Ocak 2022

Katarakt Nedir? Belirtileri Nelerdir?

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Cataract is the medical term for the intraocular lens's loss of transparency. Even though cataract development is typically thought of as a natural part of aging, it can sporadically occur congenitally as a result of traumas and medications taken.

The most frequently performed surgery in the world today is cataract surgery because of how long people can live. There is no medical remedy to stop the development of the cataract once it has begun. Deleting the transparent lens and substituting it with an artificial one should be done as soon as complaints start to surface, for this reason.

The fact that cataract surgery is the most common surgery in the world, along with the research that has been done, has led to significant advancements in intraocular lens technology and surgical technique in recent years.

With the advancements, it is now possible to live without glasses after this procedure, which was carried out as a standard procedure until ten years ago and required the use of far- and near-vision glasses after the procedure.

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Cataract: What is it? How is it identified?

The loss of transparency of the eye's normally transparent-like-glass lens, known as a cataract, results in blurry vision (like frosted glass). It also goes by the name of the Curtain to the Eye.

A biomicroscopic examination of the eye is used to make the diagnosis. There is no treatment or diet that can stop a cataract from forming or stop it from progressing once it has already begun.

Surgery is the only available remedy. A baby's pupil will appear white or distorted in the middle if they have a cataract.

Cataract Patients' Complaints

Reduced visual acuity and blurred vision are the two main complaints of cataract patients. The patients claim that they were unable to read the texts and see the objects clearly that they had previously been able to read from a distance.

Additionally, they complain that over time, their vision has grown hazy and smoky. A cataract's progression from the early stages to the surgical stage can take months or even years.

When a cataract forms, an elderly person will typically experience the ability to see up close without the use of glasses, even though they previously required hyperopia (presbyopia) glasses to read the newspaper or a book.

Cataract should be considered right away if a patient who wears distance and/or near hyperopia glasses is no longer required to wear glasses to see far and near. First cataract comes to mind when the degree of myopia in a patient over the age of 50–60 who wears myopic glasses increases.

With some cataract types, the patient can see better in low light than high light.

What Elements Contribute to Cataract Formation?

90% of cataract cases in people over 60 are senile cataracts. Aging is the most significant and common cause of cataract formation, as the name "Cataract of Aging" suggests.

Additionally, cataracts can occasionally run in families. These cataracts develop from birth.

The eye's lens becomes cloudy and white following injury (traumatic cataract). A few medications can also result in cataracts. The most well-known medication that causes cataracts is cortisone.

Can Kids Get Cataracts?

If a congenital cataract in a baby has progressed to the point where it completely obscures the pupil, surgery should be performed right away. Even when they are timely operated, vision laziness still happens. Cataracts that are unilateral are more severe cases of lazy eye.

Since the eye has not yet finished developing, intraocular lens implantation is not done in infants with cataracts under the age of 2-3 years. For this reason, until the age of 2-3 years, amblyopia in infants who have undergone cataract surgery is attempted to be prevented by wearing contact lenses if it is unilateral or glasses if it is bilateral.

When does cataract surgery become a necessity?

When a patient starts to struggle with performing daily tasks, is unable to read the newspaper, or is unable to see the television clearly, cataract surgery should be done. Surgery is not necessary for patients who can see clearly with glasses. Patients who complain of blurry vision despite wearing glasses should have cataract surgery.

Years after the development of the cataract, in some patients who choose not to have surgery, the cataract becomes extremely hard, complicating the procedure and lengthening its duration and risk of complications. Additionally, in a small subset of patients who put off having their cataracts removed for a very long time, the increased intraocular pressure (eye pressure) brought on by the cataract may result in total blindness.

Surgery for Cataracts Using Femtosecond Phaco (LENSX)

When the eye's lens loses its transparency and turns opaque, it develops a cataract. Surgery is the only known remedy for cataract, which is most frequently observed in older people. With a method called phacoemulsification, which makes use of high ultrasonic waves, cataract surgeries have been carried out for almost 20 years.

The lens that has lost its current feature is removed during this surgery, which takes an average of 20 to 30 minutes to complete and is carried out under drop anesthesia, and a new intraocular lens is implanted. Phaco surgery is carried out in stages. The dependability of the operating room environment, the caliber of the materials used, and of course the experience of the surgeon, can all affect how well the procedure goes.

Femtosecond laser; The process is computer-controlled and done without the use of a human.

The socket where the artificial intraocular lens will be placed can be properly prepared with the femtosecond phaco operation.

FAKO Technique with Femtosecond Laser ( LENSX )

Phaco technique with femtosecond laser;

Anesthetic is used to make the eye drops unconscious.

The crucial steps of cataract surgery with phaco—the corneal incision, opening in the anterior lens capsule (capsulorhexis), and disassembly of the lens—are carried out in a fully customized and secure manner after making the necessary adjustments to the femtosecond laser device.

After that, the patient is brought to another operating room where the artificial intraocular lens is implanted and the lens remnants are removed using phacoemulsification.

Our patients are free to leave after these procedures, which take about 20 minutes to complete.

How Is Cataract Surgery Performed?

Phacoemulsification is the name of the commonly used cataract surgery technique today (FAKO).

In this method, the clouded lens is simultaneously broken up into tiny pieces by ultrasonic vibrations (also referred to as lasers) and absorbed. The intraocular lens is then inserted into the lens membrane.

The eye is operated on using the phacoemulsification technique through a small incision of 2-3 mm, and no stitches are used.

As a result, the recovery period is shortened and the patient experiences clear vision right away following the procedure.

The time required for cataract surgery using this technique ranges from 15-20 minutes on average, depending on whether the cataract is fresh or old (hardened).

With a few exceptions, babies, children, and other patients have cataract surgery while under local anesthesia.

On the other hand, local anesthesia can be administered via injection or drip.

What Role Does the Lens Play in Cataract Surgery?

The eye lens's quality is just as crucial as its flawless and error-free performance.

Toric (astigmatism-specific), Multifocal (multifocal), and Monofocal (single vision) intraocular lenses that have received FDA approval and are known and trusted throughout the world may be preferred based on the patient's needs and characteristics.

The accuracy of the procedure and the standard of vision after the procedure are both improved by the use of these lenses.

What Should Be Taken Into Account Following Cataract Surgery?

The patient can resume his normal activities the day after surgery, with a few exceptions.

The patient can watch television, read, and drive from the very first day. The patient should only watch and shield his or her eyes from the possibility of infection.

What is Verion? What Does It Do?

Before cataract surgery, patients' eyes are measured using the Verion system, a brand-new measurement and calculation technique. In this system, various devices are present. The biometric device is used to measure the patient's eyes first, after which the power of the lens that will be inserted into the eye during surgery and the degree of astigmatism, if any, are determined.

The Verion device is then updated with this data. With this tool, the patient's eye structure is captured in a number of quick photographs, and the eye structure is then memorized. The operating microscope and the Femto laser device, which we will use for the procedure, are then loaded with this data. In the supine position, patients' eyes typically rotate slightly around their axes, changing the astigmatism angle.

As a result of this system, the real eye position can be seen on the laser device's screen as well as the doctor's eye in the operating microscope, even if the patient is lying down because the device retains its previous state in memory. It stops the lens from being positioned incorrectly during surgery. This system is a brand-new technique that is used in Turkey and throughout the world. The main benefits of this system are its ease of use, lack of aggravation for the patient, and, most importantly, its guarantee of a more precise and ideal surgical outcome.

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